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Congo Refugees

Congo Refugees

The United Nations refugee agency has announced a desperate need for more resources and assistance for Congo refugees, and is soon planning to internationally appeal for additional help from other nations.
The Congo refugees who fled from the Likouala region near the Oubangui River came seeking better resources and safety due to violent struggles between Congo and the Dominic Republic of Congo over the fishing waters that provide a healthy but limited bounty of fish. Violence and deadly disputes have only recently erupted and so far, compared to other areas, the number of people who have been murdered is small: about 300 individuals, of which roughly 200 are civilians.
The number of Congo refugees who were displaced stands much higher though at 15,000 people. Refugee health is an important part of the United Nation’s agenda but increased violence and need in other areas have taken precedence. However, due to the fact that the United Nations considers this crisis fixable, plans have been set into motion immediately for the help of Congo refugees.
Another difference in the amount of Congo refugees is the fact that unlike other areas, the amount of Congo refugees that have fled the Democratic Republic of Congo has slowed. Still, the United Nations has had difficulty in delivering supplies to these Congo refugees, as, for the most part, they are only accessible by water travel via the river.
More help for the Congo refugees has recently been promised by France. France’s foreign minister Bernard Koucher made a visit to Brazzaville to see the conditions that have afflicted the people. Set on improving refugee health, France is planning on sending a cargo plane to Brazzaville that will carry boats and vehicles; these will be used to carry resources and supplies to the Congo refugees.

Darfur Refugees

Darfur Refugees

Darfur displaced persons are similar to a refugee in that both usually leave their location to get away from the same kinds of human rights violations, such as political repression, religious persecution, and ethnically-motivated  attacks. However, the places where they flee depend on what type of international aid will be available to them when they reach the location. This type of relocation due to dangerous conditions is also referred to as forced migration. There are at least 25 million refugees and forced migrants worldwide.
Major trouble began when two rebel groups, the Sudan Liberation Army and the Justice Equality Movement, tried to equalize power and enhance the economic ease for people in Sudan, the largest African country, with a population of approximately 32 million. In an effort to stop these rebel groups, the Sudanese government began a reign of violence, particularly against residential communities in the region of Darfur.
Thousands have been slaughtered and entire villages destroyed. Since 2003, roughly 200,000 people have died in Darfur, and at least two million Darfur displaced persons fled due to this forced migration. Of the approximately 2 million Darfur displaced persons, almost 200,000 have escaped to the neighboring country of Chad
Although Darfur has had a history of conflict since the 1950s, the year in which major violence broke out was 2003. The forced migration of Darfur displaced persons was caused by a constant and deadly number of attacks by an Arab militia known as the Janjaweed. Since then, roughly 215,000 Sudanese refugees have been forced to flee, with many crossing the border into nearby Chad, and at least two million Darfur displaced persons relocating within Sudan.
There have been a large number of Darfur displaced persons who did not survive fleeing the hundreds of miles it takes to get to a refugee or Darfur displaced persons camp.
This forced migration has also led to a number of re-locations within Chad itself. Once the Darfur displaced persons reach Chad, they take up residence in refugee camps. These camps are run by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCRThere is a lack of national refugee policy within Chad.
Often, the Darfur displaced persons, or refugees, live in these refugee camps without a solid long-term plan for the future in place. This leaves them unable to make real homes in Chad. Additionally, many camps where Darfur displaced persons have sought safety are repeatedly attacked by armed militias.
 

Rwanda Refugees

Rwanda Refugees

The social crisis in Rwanda which has caused the flight of many African refugees has been caused by domination of political, economic and social power by the Tutsis over the Hutus. The social injustices that were inflicted on them have led to a number of civil wars.
For instance, the failed attempt by the Hutus to wrest political control away from the Tutsis led to a brutal civil war that resulted in 25,000 African refugees fleeing to nearby Tanzania, Dominic Republic of Congo and other areas of Rwanda, in a desperate hope to save the lives of themselves and their families. In addition, thousands of African refugees have been forced to relocate to the Tutsis countries because of serious conflicts and repression.
There are few countries in Africa that have resulted in a similarly high number of African refugees as Rwanda. In the mid-90s, roughly 2 million African refugees resettled, resulting in what has been considered to be one of the largest and fastest movement by African refugees in history. This large African refugee movement was due to a genocide
Most of the African refugees tended to flee to the nearby countries of Tanzania and Zaire (now known as the Democratic Republic of Congo). Since that mass movement by African refugees, there have been many attempts to send the African refugee’s safely back to Rwanda. About 500,000 refugees were returned to Rwanda from Tanzania in 1996. The returns of those African refugees have been a mixture of both involuntary and voluntary returns.
Although major political and increased safety changes had occurred in Rwanda, many African refugees did not wish to return, worrying about their safety. In late 2002, the organization of Human Rights First Human Rights made a visit to the Human Rights camps in western Uganda where it had been estimated that roughly 3,000 Rwandan refugees had recently arrived from other parts of Rwanda and Tanzania.
The African refugees who spoke with the staff told them that they had faced pressure to leave Tanzania and return to Rwanda. Some said that they had come back to Rwanda under the promise of increased protection due to the new repatriation program, but still felt that their families were in danger.

Sudanese Refugees

Sudanese Refugees

Although tend to be politically accepted, they still can face discrimination once they flee to their new country of residence. Sudanese refugees, who tend to seek refuge in Egypt when they leave Sudan, have been subject to prejudice, as an individual’s status as an official Sudan refugee is often a basis for argument. There are currently at least two million Sudanese refugees located in Egypt, and while the United States Committee for Refugees and Immigrants feels that these individuals should be treated as actual Sudanese refugees, they do not see merit in an argument over giving them the official title of a Sudan refugee.
Sudan’s violence and economic crisis’s have led to millions of Sudanese refugees taking up residence in Egypt. Horrific and deadly wars resulted in the brutal deaths of 1 in 5 Sudanese nationals. Due to the dire conditions of the Sudanese area and people, over four million Sudanese civilians were granted the status of internationally displaced persons, or people who flee their homes to relocate to another part of their country. This differs from the definition of refugees, who emigrate from the country.
Due to increased disagreement over the status of individuals who sought the official designation of a Sudan refugee, Egyptian politicians enacted what was known as the Four Freedoms Agreement in early January of 2004. This arrangement allowed for the Sudanese and Egyptians to change their residence, move, own property and have the legal ability to work in either country.
It would also allow Sudanese nationals to live in Egypt and they would no longer have to attain the official title of Sudanese refugees to stay. The major downside to the Four Freedoms Agreement was that these new Sudanese refugees could not legally take advantage of any educational, medical, or social benefits that Egyptian citizens were given.
As of 2009, due to increased disagreements and conflicts within the Egyptian government, the Four Freedoms Act has still not been legally approved. This has resulted in the continued unjust treatment of Sudanese refugees.
A Sudan refugee is still likely to be subject to social injustices, both by the authorities and residents of Egypt. Due to the fact that finding work as Sudan refugee is nearly impossible in Egypt, as well as the lack of benefits, most Sudanese refugees live in extreme poverty. A work permit is the only thing that allows Sudanese refugees to be allowed to seek employment.

Chad Refugees

Chad Refugees

Chad is home to one of the world’s poorest populations: because of this, the refugee camps that have been housing so many Darfur refugees who have fled to Chad have put an even greater strain on Chad. Unlike conflicts in other parts of the world, villager in eastern Chad have been welcoming and accepting of the Chad refugee seekers from Darfur.
Although conditions in Chad, including the Chad refugee camps, are not considered to be upstanding, Darfur refugees consider the conditions to be survivable, unlike those found in Darfur.
Tensions began to increase between local Chad villagers and Darfur refugees in the refugee camps as the demand for supplies and resources increased as the limited supplies and resources dwindled. Due to the quick exit that Darfur residents made from the region to seek refuge in various Chad refugee camps, many people did not bring any of their possessions. Accordingly, they are dependent completely on the aid of Chadian government.
Since Chad lives in extreme poverty and the residents live so close to the refugee camps, they witness daily the resources that Darfur refugees receive. The Red Cross tries to provide the Darfur residents with the benefits of education, both as well as food and clothing. These refugee camps are a financial drain on the people of Chad and resentments continue to grow. In fact, although the Red Cross provides these services and food to the Darfur refugees in the Chad refugee camps, they do not provide these services to the actual Chadian residents, causing both jealousy and resentment among the locals.
Another great resource strain is over the supply of firewood. Villagers of Chad and those from the refugee camps now must compete for the firewood that previously was attainable by the people of Chad. It is now harder to prepare meals with the limited food that is available.
Statistically, a third of the locals suffer from malnutrition. This causes additional tension as Darfur refugees benefit from the food supplied by the Red Cross at the Chad refugee camps.
Tensions are expected to run high and not waver, considering the unlikelihood of the return of the Darfur refugees to their previous homes. Considering other areas where refugee camps are plentiful though, the local conditions are still relatively peaceful.