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The Great Irish Famine Refugees

The Great Irish Famine RefugeesDisplaced persons may be causally related to various natural disastersThis led to the widespread immigration of Irish nationals to American shores the many other countries.

These displaced persons, driven out of their country by a fundamental absence of recourse due to the disappearance of their livelihood, the potato, also numbered in the millions and began to increase dramatically over the years. Of course, immigration policy at the time of the Great Famine was not subject to the same standards that govern American law today, and mass migration of foreigners was a popular practice; they came to the United States by the boatload.

In due time, though, some nativist Americans reacted strongly to the influx of these displaced persons from Ireland, and campaigned to organize and legislate against them, forming the Know Nothing Party and Immigration Restriction League, which affected today’s immigration standards by influencing lawmakers to establish immigration quotas and institute a literacy test.

The Vargas Tragedy Refugees

The Vargas Tragedy Refugees

The United States of America has a pretty widely accepted reputation for being a proverbial melting pot of different peoples, cultures and ideas. Immigrantpermanent residencerefugeesFor the sake of historical perspective, the Vargas Tragedy in Venezuela was one of the worst natural disasters in history to happen in terms of those not as immediately classifiable as earthquakes, cyclones, floods or famine.
It was brought into effect by unusually strong rainfall amounts to an area that was prone to flooding and had only seen steady increases in population since the last major instance of flooding in the region. The flooding led to mudslides, and the combined forces of the weather and the geological response weakened the infrastructure of many roads and buildings. By the end tally, between ten and thirty thousand people were presumed dead, and whole towns were more or less destroyed, forcing the relocation of much of the Vargas state’s constituents.
President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela, though, was insistent on devising solutions for the displaced that did not require the granting of immigrant status by other countries, especially America. One plan of Chávez’s was relocation of a large section of the Vargas state population to the central part of the country on a permanent basis, which, true to the nature of establishing any immigrant or other stranger in a new location, would be very time-consuming and expensive.
The President also started a campaign for able Venezuelans to “adopt” their compatriots for a spell. Still another establishment of relief organizations, the Venezuelan government and others who could offer to accommodate the tragedy victims were refugee camps. Refugee camps are used quite generally to house the displaced until a time when they can be resettled in their legal residence; if this is not possible, authorities can try to re-establish inhabitants of refugee camps as an immigrant to other countries, though success is by no means a guarantee. 
The legacy of the Vargas Tragedy is multifaceted. Clearly, the huge death toll and the suggestion that more could have been done by authorities to limit that number stick out, but another hallmark of this disaster was the profound anti-American sentiment concerning their relief efforts. Even after U.S. relief efforts had been sent out and even in the face of apparent need, Chávez was still adamant about his stance, illustrating the complications of politics in refugee and immigration law.

Future of Refugees After a Natural Disaster

Future of Refugees After a Natural Disaster

With many natural disasterspropertyThis kind of refugee news may well be in our future, and in increasingly more frequent intervals, as a result of man’s hand in the shaping of the world environment. Scientific researchers, in tandem with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees – the UNHCR
Still, while the UNHCR has full recognition of the gravity of these problems, it still has no formal recognition of the environmental or climate refugee. News that comes from the UNHCR  concerning refugees almost uniformly corresponds to those who have been estranged from their countries as a result of war or other form of political unrest.
Thus, while the UNHCR might be a valid way to obtain refugee news as a result of United Nations protocol, it is not a means of helping displaced people who are likewise forcibly removed from their homes. Considering how many people this currently affects and how trends may continue to be exacerbated, environmental climate change refugee status is something important enough that it would be a good measure with which to be more specific. By being an unclassified displaced person today, unfortunately, an individual may not even qualify for legal status as a resident between different governments. Either UNHCR must revise its terms, or the application for human aid may come too late to those who need it.

What to Do With Natural Disaster Refugees

What to Do With Natural Disaster Refugees

Often times, with an earthquake or other natural disaster, the majority of the damage will be assumed to be with the initial force of the main event, as it was with the recent earthquake that devastated the city of Port-au-Prince and the surrounding areas in a matter of minutes, perhaps even seconds for some of the more structurally deficient buildings.
However, as was the case of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 and even the Indian Ocean earthquake of 2005, the initial earthquake may have been the precipitating phenomenon for the destruction that ensued, but the bulk of the damage was incurred through collateral means and may even better recall the event to future generations. In terms of the latter, the whole chain of events was set in motion not by an earthquake above sea level (as the name “earthquake implies”) but the immense power of a 9.0-magnitude underwater earthquake that occurred on a fault off the coast of Indonesia in the Indian Ocean, which actually served to alter the rotation of the planet Earth as a whole.
This triggered a huge set of tsunami waves that was unable to be detected, owing to the unpredictability of earthquakes using current methods, the high population density of the impact zone and the fact a network to detect the tsunami waves was not viable given the poor economy of the region. All told, over 200,000 people died as a result of the quake-tsunami connection, and myriad others were forced to relocate as a result of the flooding.  
As regards response to the refugees and lawful operations, the damage was so profound that even organizations who tend to more narrowly focus on political refugees, as people displaced by natural disasters are usually referred to by the term “displaced persons,” offered their services in relief efforts.
As for how to physically house the survivors of the tsunami, foreign governments and relief efforts alike phrased their relief efforts in terms of refugee status. The U.S. government radically altered its position on the acquisition of refugees and displaced persons, and Indonesia, Thailand and other countries saw the creation of refugee camps that provided aid and shelter for their nationals that worked in tandem with humanitarian organizations. 
The Great Famine of Ireland was a stimulus for mass immigration to America in the 1850’s and 1860’s. The famine was in direct relation to the spread of potato blight across the potato crop in Ireland.
The effect on personal economies and human lives was exacerbated by an over dependence on the potato crop and the socioeconomic policies put in place. Ultimately, this dark period in Ireland’s history claimed over a million lives and put a tremendous dent in the indigenous Irish population. This loss of numbers in Ireland is further explained by strong emigration trends to the United States and elsewhere.
The effects of Irish refugee movement would also have enduring applications to today’s immigration law, as nativist reactions to these new settlers prompted reformers to establish quotas for immigrant groups and demanding minimum standards for literacy, effectively ending America’s “open door” policy on immigration. 
While translations to the United States and immigration practices have yielded large numbers of legal and illegal Latin American immigrants to the country, it would be expected that asylum seekers, refugees and other displaced persons have contributed to the multicultural face of America in tangible ways.
In response to the Vargas Tragedy of 1999, then, Venezuelan nationals can be expected to make the pilgrimage to the “New World,” despite existing anti-American policies, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez’s rejection of American aid, and the attempts of the Venezuelan government to keep its citizens in the country. The Vargas Tragedy was a result of unusually high amounts of rainfall in a region already plagued by a tendency to flood, eventually giving way to mudslides that destroyed roads, buildings and other structures, in essence wiping out whole towns and displacing the majority of the state of Vargas.
President Chávez’s solution plan was indeed multifaceted. Included in his stratagem were permanent relocation to the interior of the country, temporary refugee camps erected by federal and relief services and even a unique means of protecting refugees, an “adoption” program by where able Venezuelan families could take in internally displaced victims for a time. Perhaps unfortunately, this call to arms for Venezuelans also involved a rejection of American aid in the form of the Armed Forces before they could arrive, illustrating the influence of politics on attitudes toward refugees. 


The Love Canal Disaster and “Man-Made” Natural Refugees
The Love Canal disaster was, in fact, not a natural disaster per sé, as there was neither a massive loss of life nor were the events beyond human control. Problems arose when the original plans for a residential community with expansive parks and working canal were scrapped due to lack of funding, leaving the door open for local chemical companies to dump their waste in the unused site. Eventually, though, the need for the land was apparent, and despite toxicity levels in the ground beneath the community, schools and other residential functions were allowed to be built.
This led to serious health complications in a number of residents, and upon full realization of the gravity of the issue, the Love Canal site was put in a state of emergency by the President, the first disaster of an environmental nature to earn that dubious honor. The Love Canal disaster serves as another example of refugee status, at least in practical terms, within one’s own country, and paved the way for international recognition of environmental dangers as a catalyst for refugee migration.
Responses to the San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 can be seen as reminiscent of the progressive spirit as it manifested in the United States and somewhat of a silver, or rather, golden lining for the city’s inhabitants. To be certain, San Francisco was hurt in the short term and long term in terms of material losses. Surely, the physical devastation of the city can not be ignored, as over two-thirds of the city succumbed to fires created in the wake of the initial 7.0-plus-magnitude earthquake along the San Andreas Fault.
Several thousands were killed by the quake and the fires, yet more were displaced by the carnage, and millions of dollars of damage was calculated to have been realized from the disaster. Moreover, as the city needed to be rebuilt, San Francisco was unable to continue to be a major factor in commerce on the West Coast for some time, redirecting business to Los Angeles and ensuring that the latter would be the premier destination in California. Still, for those who did not flee to nearby cities, there were hope and a new legacy to be found.
The U.S. government cared for its in-state refugees with the Army’s erection of makeshift (but structurally sound) refugee housing during the rebuilding process, evoking images of progressive reform to come. Furthermore, to San Francisco’s benefit, the rebuilding process allowed for a revival away from the corrupt influences of the local powers-that-be beforehand, and led to the formation of a new identity for the city as a place of cultural significance. 
The tendency of most to regard natural disaster is to approach it by thinking only in terms of those dramatic events that occur within a moment’s notice and are obvious attention-grabbers and financial drains. Even so, some disasters, such as famine, take time to develop but may be just as deadly or affect just as many people. Such is the case with climate change and other environmental trends that lend themselves to be producers of large numbers of displaced persons. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, or UNHCR