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The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act

The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility ActThere
have been many heated debates in the United States regarding laws and policies
pertaining to immigration and immigration reform. One major result of this case
was the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA),
enacted in 1996. This put significant immigration reforms into the laws of the
United States. This bill had not only an impact on illegal immigrants
, but also legal immigrants and people who are
involved with the employment and housing of immigrants as well.

One of the areas touched upon in the IIRIRA was border patrol
. It expressed the need for more border patrol
enforcers, technologically advanced equipment, and better procedures for border
patrol. It also addressed immigrants that “overstay” and gave
provisions on investigators monitoring visa applications and people that abused
them. Other illegal activities were amended in this act, such as illegal alien
smuggling, racketeering, and the creation of fake immigration documents. Also,
if immigrants committed crimes
, it detailed new legislation about the
implications, such as deportation

Further Immigration Reforms:

Immigration reforms for employment practices are included in the IIRIRA. It
addressed employers and illegal immigration practices. Benefits granted to
aliens had restrictions placed on them, including both state and federal
programs. In addition, there are further provisions throughout the IIRIRA
immigration reform, outlined in the following Titles:

Title I: This area of the IIRIRA tightened the security of borders and border
enforcement and helped establish legal alien entry and regulation within the

Title II: This title heightened the penalties and the enforcement for
transporting illegal aliens into and within the United States. This included
aliens that entered into the country willfully and citizens that have
contributed to increasing illegal alien population by performing fraudulent

Title III: Covers acceptable practices by which illegal aliens are processed
when they are arrested at the arms of the law. This act states ways in which
illegal aliens are arrested, imprisoned, mediated and whether or not they
should be deported.

Title IV: Contains information about the employment of aliens. Covers such
areas as employment pilot programs, practices of alien employers, and puts
stipulations of illegal practices performed when employing an alien.

Title V: This title is designed to convey the government’s assistance to
aliens. It also outlines several eligibility restrictions before an alien may
receive support from the government. Many new provisions were included in this
title that are designed to benefit illegal aliens for immigration reform,
including pilot work programs, medical expenses and fraudulent activities.

Title VI: Provides miscellaneous provisions related or unrelated to provisions
in the titles above. It also contains technical aspects of the act to bring the
whole of the document together. Contains regulations to foreign students
entering the country and guidelines for visa waiver programs. Other immigration
reforms in this title included other issues such as criminalization of female
genital mutilation and stipulations for border patrol museums. It finally
states that a provision would be unenforceable if it is found to be unconstitutional

The Center for Immigration Studies

The Center for Immigration Studies

The Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) is a non-profit organization which was founded in 1985 that advocates the reduction of immigration within the United States. Since it is a 501(c)(3) organization (meaning that it is established for religious, charitable, scientific reasons) it has a limited ability to involve itself in political affairs. It is regarded by many and by itself as a non-partisan conservative organization.
The mission statement of the Center Immigration Studies basically emphasizes its belief in a pro-immigration, low-immigration United States. It states that in the importance of public interest, the nation would benefit from a lower immigration rate, but in return, the fewer immigrants admitted into the United States would receive a “warmer” welcome.

Publications and Presence in Congress:
The CIS has published quite a few readings pertaining to immigration law studies, which are available both in print and on the internet. It has published books, op-eds and even filmed videos on immigration policy. The CIS has also taken advantage of blogging as a medium of keeping users up-to-date of immigration law studies. All of CIS’s publications are available to everyone free online.
The CIS has also been called upon to give congressional testimony for various subjects, especially during the immigration reform talks of 2006 and 2007. The organization has given testimony to federal and state legislators on several occasions.
Views About Immigration Law Studies:

One of the underlying stances the CIS takes on immigration law studies is something called “attrition through enforcement”. This means reducing the population of illegal immigrants by tightening up immigration laws and enforcement. Through increased deportation rates and the rate of illegal immigrants leaving through free-will, the CIS believes that the number of illegal immigrants will continue to decline through the years rather than increasing as it has in the recent past. The CIS believes that the steady increase of illegal immigrants has developed into a “looming crisis” and through proper immigration laws, it can be shrunken down into a “manageable nuisance”.
In addition, the CIS does not support the act of mass deportation because the United States does not have the means to hunt for and detain millions of illegal immigrants in such a short period of time. The organization also believes that such a drastic change would be detrimental to the economy and the transition would hurt big business who have been employing and relying on illegal labor for low wages.
CIS supports “E-Verify,” a system enacted by the United States government, in which employees working for companies legally can verify themselves as so. The program is run by Department of Homeland Security along with the Social Security Administration.
The Center for Immigration Studies also is concerned about the population of the United States, how it is affected by immigration, and what the increase of population does to the environment. On a micro level, the CIS released footage of the damage done by illegal immigrants smuggling across the southern border in Arizona. It shows the trash that they level behind in areas where wildlife is predominant. It also gives a stance on the macro level, that if the immigration laws continue as they are, the U.S. population would increase to dangerous numbers over the next fifty years.

The Homeland Security Act of 2002

The Homeland Security Act of 2002

The Homeland Security Act of 2002 was a piece of legislation that was penned and enacted following the aftermath of the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks on the United States. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 created the largest governmental restructure since the Department of Defense was created as a result of the National Security Act of 1947. The United States Department of Homeland Security was commissioned as a result of the passing of this act, and a new position of Secretary of Homeland Security was created.
As a result of the formulation of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS), there have been several changes in homeland security immigrationand immigration rules. A few agencies enacted under the structure of the DHS include the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, and the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. The DHS did not replace the currently-existing Office of Homeland Security, but rather, was provided with advisement.
The Homeland Security Act of 2002 had a huge impact on immigration rules and regulations. Many of the divisions that were created as a result of the act carried on the duties of older organizations, but also handled further responsibilities. The following are organizations that have an impact on homeland security immigration issues:

The United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS):
The USCIS is a division of the DHS which carries out a number of services, many of which have long been the responsibility of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The purpose of the bureau is to process visa petitions, naturalization petitions, and creates programs for the benefit of immigrants; all of which are programs that were originally handled by the INS. However, the USCIS has added a new emphasis on efficiency when homeland security immigration applications are being processed. This has led to many beneficial results, such as the shrinkage of applicant backlogs and improved customer service.
According to immigration rules, the USCIS puts their efforts into citizenship of permanent residents. During the naturalization process, a person is eligible for becoming a U.S. citizen if they own a Permanent Resident Card for at least five years without leaving the U.S. for longer than 180 days at a time. If he or she is married to a U.S. citizen, the waiting time is reduced to just three years.

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP):
The CBP is a federal law enforcement agency that helps to regulate international trade, receives duties from imports coming into the United States, and also upholds U.S. immigration rules and regulations. As the name implies, the CBP is responsible for border patrol. The two main goals of the CBP is to prevent terrorists from entering into or from sending weapons into the United States and to ensure that individuals do not enter the United States illegally.
The difference between the CBP and the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement is that the latter handles long-term investigations pertaining to homeland security immigration cases.

What are the Enforcement Practices of the INS?

What are the Enforcement Practices of the INS?

The INS (Immigration and Naturalization Service) was a division of the United States Department of Justice, but has since been replaced by Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2003, following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. The functions of the INS have largely been replaced by several divisions within the DHS, including immigration services such as naturalization, permanent residence, and asylum.
The main duty of the INS was the protection and enforcement of immigration laws. It was designed to control immigration problems, such as preventing illegal aliens from entering into the United States and helping people born in foreign countries become U.S. citizens in a process known as naturalization. Working with the United Nations, the Department of State and the Department of Health and Human Services, the INS was able to deal with immigration problems.

Divisions of the INS:
The INS was divided into four divisions: Programs, Field Operations, Policy and Planning, and Management.

The Programs and Field Operations:
The programs division was responsible for the direct enforcement of the policies created from the management division of the INS. This included the tackling of immigration problems including the search, detainment, and deportation of illegal immigrants in the United States. It also handled the legal and illegal affairs of immigrants entering into the United States.
Field Operations oversaw that the offices operating around the world were performing their duties correctly. They also implemented the policies and tasks for solving immigration problems for three regional offices working under it.

Management and Policy & Planning Divisions (The Managerial Divisions):
The office of Policy and Planning was divided into three areas: The policy division, the planning division, and the evaluation and research center. The purpose of these divisions were to communicate ideas and information about the immigration problem with other organizations.
The management division helped to maintain and keep a focus on the general duties of the organization and made sure that the overall mission was being carried out. These duties were accomplished through Information Resources Management, Finance, Human Resources and Administration, and Equal Employment Opportunity.

Origin of the INS:
The formation of the INS was due to the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in 1875 that ruled immigration as a federal duty to control because many states began to pass their own immigration laws at the end of the Civil War. Early forms of the INS operated under the Treasury Department and was responsible for admitting, rejecting and processing immigrants. They also began to establish initial immigration laws and policies.
During the 1900s, the primary concern of organization was to make sure that American wages were protected from the immigration problems that started to take shape. This is when Congress moved Immigration responsibilities from the Treasury department to the Department of Commerce and Labor.

The 4 Biggest Challenges of Immigration Law Reform

The 4 Biggest Challenges of Immigration Law Reform

1. Border security – A critical component of any piece of immigration reform law will be the funds and approaches devoted to securing our nation’s DemocratsRepublicans
2. Cracking down on employers of illegal immigrants – There is considerable incentive for immigrants to disregard border laws if they can secure employment on American soil without having to endure cumbersome, costly legal means. Frequently, these aliens will not even possess a specific skill or trade when seeking employment. There is some debate on this issue, as proponents of a more Draconian immigration reform law would have undocumented denizens more swiftly 
3. Provide a path to citizenship – This is probably the most hotly-contested of all the parts of stated presidential immigrant reform agendas. A number of Americans support a route to new immigration law that goes through a system of amnesty for current illegals. Perhaps getting off with a slap on the wrist in the form of a fine and being sent to the back of the line of the immigration process, illegals under this plan could still see themselves as 
4. Maintain a good working relationship with Mexico – The idea under for making improvements in Mexico is to make illegal entry into the U.S. less appealing; ideally, any new immigration law would be buttressed by Mexico’s agreement to do their part to help themselves economically. 

The Scary Facts on Immigration Law and Disease

The Scary Facts on Immigration Law and Disease


When the proliferation of the HIV virus and AIDS first manifested itself in the American consciousness decades ago, there was much confusion surrounding the nature of the virus and of its origin. While certainly great care must be shown towards those suffer from the ravages of AIDS, especially those who carry the virus and can transmit it to others, it should not be a source of stigma to the carrier nor should it prohibit him or her from enjoying the advantages that other people have.



Realistically, so much more is known about HIV and AIDS and how it can destroy lives than in the past. Yet, it was only recently that a change to USA immigration laws was brought about by the United States government regarding people who have tested HIV positive.



The latest immigration law to be amended in terms of popular practice is the lifting of a travel ban on those who carry HIV and wish to immigrate to the United States. This revision of USA immigration laws comes at the same time that another country, South Korea, is also doing away with this restriction.  



This latest immigration law revision is a reversal of a precedent set 23 years ago by the Immigration and Naturalization Act, a division of USA immigration laws that was meant as a protective measure but ultimately proved to be discriminatory in nature. Worse yet, it seems that this latest immigration law reversal was not built on solid science.



The Immigration and Naturalization Act first brought forth in the 1980's made potential immigrants inadmissible on the basis that HIV and AIDS were considered communicable diseases. The fact that the government could so simply turn this decision around speaks to the inaccuracy of the information that first informed it. The first new immigrant to feel the effects of the lifting of the ban under this latest immigration law amendment has already been identified as a man from the Netherlands, so it is certain that this modification to the rule is fully functional.



The modification of USA immigration laws, in terms of its place on the total world timeline, is among the latest. Immigration law will yet see other changes to this standard, however, as there are yet still nations who are upholding the ban on immigration for HIV-positive applicants.



The list of nations and territories still refusing to admit carriers of the HIV virus are Brunei, China, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Russia, Singapore, Sudan, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In terms of the wait for carriers of the virus, 23 years is a long wait. Still, in terms of the staying power of some constitutional provisions, it is thankful that this discriminatory chapter of USA immigration laws closed so quickly. 


Can You Marry Someone Just For A Green Card?

Can You Marry Someone Just For A Green Card?


The precepts behind American immigration lawAnchor cover some significant aspects of the human condition. One of these all-important happenings considered to be a milestone event is the institution of marriageAnchor. While marriage customs may be slightly to wildly different relative to where the ceremony is held, there are provisions within the guidelines of the United States that allow for full recognition as a result of immigration. Marriage laws in the United States are fundamentally tied to the trappings of American immigration law when they come to a spousal or fiancé(e) relationship.

In order for the blissfully wedded couple to live a happy life together as U.S. residents, they both need to submit to American standards upon immigration; marriage laws surrounding parties of mixed nationality have only gotten more stringent with time. In popular media, a person's acquisition of a green cardAnchor is often portrayed as a consequence of marriage to an American citizen. Despite the derisive applications of the green card, the U.S. government is quite serious about individuals to whom it is issues permanent residencyAnchor.

Before an alien becomes a true American, immigration law must run its due course. One thing that consular officials who review a person's file consider is the viability of the marriage. Knowing full well that people will form a partnership in the guise of marriage for the express purpose of trying to obtain a green card, American immigration law officials will look for evidence of a bona fide marital relationship.

Usually, the presence of witnesses at a wedding ceremony or some tangible proof of cohabitation such as jointly filed paperwork will help the cause of the applicants. It is preferable if there is strong evidence this was a long-term relationship prior to the process of immigration.

It is also a bit presumptuous of anyone expecting that a true marriage will automatically garner permanent residency upon completion of immigration. Marriage laws dictate that, as a condition of American immigration law, before the applicant can claim a green card for their personal identification, they must undergo a period of conditional residence and have indicated an intent to do so on their marriage visaAnchor application.



Following the two years of conditional residence, the applicant must re-apply for the purpose of extending the length of their residency and must go on another interview with an officer on behalf of U.S. immigration; marriage laws, once more, dictate that there must be continued evidence of a marital relationship. Once more, tangible proof of lawful cohabitation, such as signed affidavits from family, friends and other associates, must be offered.


Understanding the Immigration Acts

Understanding the Immigration Acts

In recent decades, immigration has become an increasing serious concern in the United States. Every year, over one million foreign individuals legally immigrate into the country. Many more enter into the country unlawfully.
Concerns regarding the safety of the United States, in addition to issues regarding the economy, caused Congress to pass the Immigration Responsibility Act. The Act established the notion of “illegal aliens” and created severe repercussions for individuals who violate immigration laws and regulations. In addition, the legislation sought to protect U.S. citizens by allowing the deportation of immigrants who are convicted of criminal offenses.
Of the existing Immigration Acts, this legislation changed the U.S. immigration policy most notably. It provided the U.S. Department of Homeland Security with the responsibility of registering immigrants and ensuring that they do not threaten the well-being of U.S. citizens.

Why Is Illegal Immigration Encouraged?

Why Is Illegal Immigration Encouraged?

Immigration to the United States can occur through the two possible forms as consist of either legal immigration, on the one hand, or illegal immigration, on the other. In this regard, people can either choose to contact the relevant agency of the United States government and secure permission to settle in the country, as can eventually allow for the later process of naturalization, or, alternately, illegal immigration can allow people to more quickly realize the benefits, as may be economic in nature or of some other kind, to be gained by relocation to the United States.



Illegal immigration has been responsible for energizing much of the debate over the legal ramifications of immigration in the United States during the late 20th century and early 21st century, in contrast to which legal immigration once represented a more pressing concern in American politics and law. 



Illegal immigration has been tied to the large labor market in the United States, in which the most competitive wage decreases can be tied to the availability of employees from outside the legal infrastructure of the American labor system. Legal immigration, on the other hand, has been observed to confer greater benefits in terms of employment opportunities which possess a greater degree of visibility.



By contrast, illegal immigration has been tied to comparatively low-paying jobs. Despite the efforts which have been expended, such as through law enforcement measures and legislative changes, to encourage a shift to legal immigration in preference over the alternative, illegal immigration is generally encouraged by the widespread global interest in working in the United States.


Title 22 of US Code

Title 22 of US Code

People interested in the laws of the United States which pertain to immigration can refer, for one, to the source of Title 22, 2601 of the United States Code. This section of the officially codified compilation of federal legal statutes is entitled “Refugees and migration.” The provisions contained in Title 22, 2601 specifically place the subject of United States immigration in the wider context of the United States government’s relations with other nation states Out of the 86 chapters included in United States Code, Title 22, the 2601 section is included in 36, which is entitled “Migration and Refugee Assistance.”
In addition to the initial and most immediately relevant section of Title 22, 2601, Chapter 36 of this section of the overall United States Code also includes five additional sections, as pertain to subjects such as Presidential Authorization, Treasury funding of U.S. government activities related to immigration, and the ability to audit such funds as is enjoyed by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 
United States Code Title 22, 2601 includes six different sections, identified alphabetically. (a) pertains to the subject of “United States membership in International Organization for Migration; contributions to Organization;” (b) is on the subject of “Appropriations for assistance to refugees;” (c) is on “United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund; appropriations;” (d), “Information to Congressional committees;” (e), “Continued availability of certain funds;” and (f), “Restrictions on foreign assistance not applicable to migration and refugee assistance.” The first provision of (a) allows for Presidential decisions as to the United States’ status in the International Organization for Migration.